Download our e-book of Introduction To Python

Matplotlib - Subplot2grid() FunctionDiscuss Microsoft Cognitive ToolkitMatplotlib - Working with ImagesMatplotlib - PyLab moduleMatplotlib - Working With TextMatplotlib - Setting Ticks and Tick LabelsCNTK - Creating First Neural NetworkMatplotlib - MultiplotsMatplotlib - Quiver PlotPython - Chunks and Chinks View More

How can I write Python code to change a date string from "mm/dd/yy hh: mm" format to "YYYY-MM-DD HH: mm" format? Which sorting technique is used by sort() and sorted() functions of python? How to use Enum in python? Can you please help me with this error? I was just selecting some random columns from the diabetes dataset of sklearn. Decision tree is a classification algo...How can it be applied to load diabetes dataset which has DV continuous Objects in Python are mutable or immutable? How can unclassified data in a dataset be effectively managed when utilizing a decision tree-based classification model in Python? How to leave/exit/deactivate a Python virtualenvironment Join Discussion

Kajal Pawar

3 years ago

- How to write a tanh function and its derivative in python?

- Tanh and Sigmoid activation function:

- When will can use tanh function:

- Advantages of tanh function

- Disadvantages of tanh function

- A simple implementation of tanh activation function in python

Tanh is also known as **hyperbolic tangent function**. The
curves of tanh function and sigmoid function are relatively similar as we can
see from the image below.

Let ’s compares both of them. When the input is large or small,
the output is almost smooth and the gradient is small, which is not conducive
to weight update. The difference is the output interval.

The output interval of tanh is **1,** and the whole function is
**0-centric**, which is better than sigmoid.

In general, binary classification problems, the tanh function is
used for the hidden layer and the sigmoid function is used for the output
layer. However, these are not static, and the specific activation function to
be used must be analyzed according to the specific problem, or it depends on different
experiments.

The equation of the tanh function id given by:

The graph of the tanh function and its derivative can be shown as:

So, writing
a tanh function and its derivative is quite easy. Simply we have to define a
function for the formula. It is implemented as shown below:

```
def tanh_function(z):
return (np.exp(z) - np.exp(-z)) / (np.exp(z) + np.exp(-z))
```

```
def tanh_prime_function(z):
return 1 - np.power(tanh_function(z),2)
```

- Tanh is quite similar to the Y=X function in the vicinity of the origin. When the value of the activation function is low, the matrix operation can be directly performed which makes the training process relatively easier. Both tanh and sigmoid activation functions are fired which makes the neural network heavier.

- Sigmoid function ranges from 0 to 1, but there might be a case where we would like to introduce a negative sign to the output of the artificial neuron. This is where Tanh (hyperbolic tangent function) becomes very useful. Tanh function is almost similar to sigmoid function but the only the main difference is that its output varies from +1 to -1 and Tanh function is centred at zero.

Most of
the times Tanh function is usually used in hidden layers of a neural network because
its values lies between -1 to 1 that’s why the
mean for the hidden layer comes out be 0 or its very close to 0, hence tanh
functions helps in centering the data by
bringing mean close to 0 which makes learning for the next layer much easier. So,
tanh function is useful.

- For tanh activation function the gradient is stronger as compared to sigmoid function.

- Tanh also has the vanishing gradient problem similar to the sigmoid function.

```
# import libraries
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
import numpy as np
#creating a tanh function
def tanh(x):
a=(np.exp(x)-np.exp(-x))/(np.exp(x)+np.exp(-x))
dt=1-t**2
return a,da
b=np.arange(-4,4,0.01)
tanh(b)[0].size,tanh(b)[1].size
# Setup centered axes
fig, ax = plt.subplots(figsize=(9, 5))
ax.spines['left'].set_position('center')
ax.spines['bottom'].set_position('center')
ax.spines['right'].set_color('none')
ax.spines['top'].set_color('none')
ax.xaxis.set_ticks_position('bottom')
ax.yaxis.set_ticks_position('left')
# Create and show plot
ax.plot(b,tanh(b)[0], color="#307EC7", linewidth=3, label="tanh")
ax.plot(b,tanh(b)[1], color="#9621E2", linewidth=3, label="derivative")
ax.legend(loc="upper right", frameon=false)
fig.show()
```

The plot shown below is the output
of the above code which plots the tanh and its derivative function.

I hope you enjoyed reading this article and finally, you came
to know about **Tanh Activation Function and its implementation using python.**

For more such blogs/courses on data science, machine
learning, artificial intelligence and emerging new technologies do visit us at InsideAIML.

Thanks for reading…

Happy Learning…