How IoT Works?

Kajal Pawar

a year ago

Just like the Internet has changed the way we work & communicate with each other, by connecting us through the World Wide Web (internet), IoT also aims to take this connectivity to another level by connecting multiple devices at a time to the internet thereby facilitating man to machine and machine to machine interactions.

Following  are four fundamental components of IoT system which explains how IoT works :

1.     Sensors/Devices:

   First, various sensors and devices that are applied in the system helps in the collection of very minute data from the surrounding environment. All of this collected data goes through various degree of complexities which may range from a simple temperature monitoring sensor or a complex full video feed.
An IoT implemented system or device can have multiple sensors that are brought up together to perform functions more than sensing things. For example, our phone is a device that has multiple sensors such as GPS, accelerometer, camera but our phone does not simply sense things.
The basic step will always be to pick and collect data from the surrounding environment be it a single sensor or multiple systems.


Next, the data that is collected through sensors is sent to cloud infrastructure through a medium. The sensors that are attached to the system or the device can be connected to the cloud through various medium of communication and transports such as cellular networks, Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, and many more.
Every option we choose has some specifications and trade-offs between power consumption, range, and bandwidth. So, choosing the best connectivity option in the IoT system is important.

3.Data Processing

Once the data is gathered and is sent via the cloud, the software performs operations on the acquired data. An example can be of checking that the temperature reading on devices such as AC or heaters is within an acceptable range. But there might be a situation when user interaction is required, for example- what if when the temperature is too high or if there is an intruder in your house? That’s where the user comes into the picture.

4. User Interface

Next, the data or the information that is acquired should be made available to the end-user through some means. This can be achieved by notifying the end-user through triggering alarms on their phone or notifying through texts or emails.
The end-user sometimes have interface through which they can monitor in their IoT system. For example, a user might randomly want to check the recordings captured through the camera and this he can achieve using his phone.
There are also cases where some actions perform automatically. By establishing and implementing some predefined rules, the entire IoT system can adjust the settings automatically and no human has to be physically present. Also in case if any intruders are sensed, the system can generate an alert not only to the owner of the house but to the concerned authorities.

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