like the Internet has changed the way we work & communicate with each other, by
connecting us through the World Wide Web (internet), IoT also aims to take this
connectivity to another level by connecting multiple devices at a time to the
internet thereby facilitating man to machine and machine to machine interactions.
Fundamental Components of IoT System
Following are four fundamental components of IoT system
which explains how IoT works :
First, various sensors and
devices that are applied in the system helps in the collection of very minute data
from the surrounding environment. All of this collected data goes through
various degree of complexities which may range from a simple temperature
monitoring sensor or a complex full video feed.
An IoT implemented system or device can have multiple sensors that are
brought up together to perform functions more than sensing things. For example, our phone is a device that has multiple sensors such as
GPS, accelerometer, camera but our phone does not simply sense things.
The basic step will
always be to pick and collect data from the surrounding environment be it a single sensor or multiple systems.
Next, the data that is
collected through sensors is sent to cloud infrastructure through a medium. The
sensors that are attached to the system or the device can be connected to the
cloud through various medium of communication and transports such as cellular
networks, Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, and many more.
Every option we choose has
some specifications and trade-offs between power consumption, range, and
bandwidth. So, choosing the best connectivity option in the
IoT system is important.
3. Data Processing
Once the data is gathered and is sent via the cloud, the software performs
operations on the acquired data. An example can be of checking that the
temperature reading on devices such as AC or heaters is within an acceptable
range. But there might be a situation when user interaction is
required, for example- what if when the temperature is too high or if there isan intruder in your house? That’s where
the user comes into the picture.
4. User Interface
Next, the data or the information that is acquired should be
made available to the end-user through some means. This can be achieved by
notifying the end-user through triggering alarms on their phone or notifying
through texts or emails.
The end-user sometimes have interface through which they can
monitor in their IoT system. For example, a user might randomly want to check
the recordings captured through the camera and this he can achieve using his phone.
There are also cases where some actions perform automatically. By
establishing and implementing some predefined rules, the entire IoT system can
adjust the settings automatically and no human has to be physically present.
Also in case if any intruders are sensed, the system can generate an alert not
only to the owner of the house but to the concerned authorities.
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